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Value for Money (VFM) & Sustainability in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Programmes Survey in Bangladesh (2014)

The issues for value for money (VFM) and sustainability, as well as the linkages between them, are increasingly the subject of policy debate in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector. The lack of strong evidence in both areas is an obstacle to effective programming. It is funded by DFID and implemented by Oxford Policy Management (OPM) and Mitra & Associates. The project started on 24 February 2014 and accomplished on 31 July 2014.


Project description: The survey was carried out in rural areas of all divisions of Bangladesh. It had four different components: (1) a household survey; (2) a community survey; (3) water point inspections and (4) qualitative survey that include key informant interviews and FGD. The household survey covered topics including characteristics of different water points used by the household, and about their accessibility, reliability, water availability and quality, sanitation and hygiene. The community survey enquired about the public water points in the community and on their physical characteristics, funding of operation and maintenance (O&M), usage, and reliability, accessibility and quality. The water point inspection assessed the functionality of public water points listed in the community survey, the quality of water, and the risk factors for each source. The qualitative interviews involved key informant interviews (KII) with representatives from the local government and local leaders and focus group discussions (FGD) with the women in sampled communities.


The objectives of the survey was to identify how delivery can be made more sustainable, efficient and effective, and to identify the potential to reduce unit cost of DFID-funded WASH implementation programmes and as such expected to enhance the insights of policy makers to improve the overall water, sanitation and hygiene condition of Bangladesh. 


Tasks carried out by Mitra and Associates:


Methodology (Sample size & Tools): The survey followed a two-stage sampling approach. In the first stage – 60 primary sampling units (PSU) was sampled from the list of all rural Census Enumeration Areas in Bangladesh using probability proportionate to size (PPS). In the second stage – 20 households and all public water points were sampled from the sampled PSUs. Thus a total of 1200 households were sampled. All the households and public water points in the sampled PSUs were listed prior to the actual fieldwork. The survey had qualitative part-FGDs with women in 30 PSUs and one KII with the local government representative and one KII with local leaders in the remaining 30 PSUs. All the qualitative respondents were sampled purposively.


Tools: Household and community questionnaire, water point inspection tool, guideline and checklist for key informant interview-KII and FGD were translated from English to Bengali. Develop listing forms for households and water-points.


Training, Data collection & quality control: Separate comprehensive training on quantitative and qualitative part and 5 data collection team was assigned which consist enumerators and qualitative researchers. Quality control checking designed to physically verify whether the interviewer completed the questionnaires by interviewing the right respondents in the right households by asking the right questions. Quality control checking undertook both in presence and absence of the interviewing team. Data processing: Quantitative data was double entered by cs-pro software, edited, and cleaned. Qualitative notes were elaborated, included observation. Then we did the thematic analysis of the qualitative data like put all data of water sources together and submit both data set to client.


Client Reference: Oxford Policy Management Ltd., United Kingdom represented by Dr. Rashid Zaman, Consultant, Health Portfolio, Tel: +44(0)1865207397,, Oxford Policy Management Ltd., 6 St Aldates Courtyard, 38 St Aldates, Oxford, OX1 1BN , United Kingdom.


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